Childhood maltreatment is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral problems during childhood and is a risk factor for different mental health problems, which may persist into adulthood. Maltreated children show significantly more externalizing and internalizing symptoms, more discipline problems in school and more symptoms of depression than children without maltreatment experiences. They are often more aggressive against peers, have fewer social skills and are more likely to be socially withdrawn. Moreover, longitudinal studies point to the fact that these symptoms are often persistent across long periods of time. Among the most far-reaching effects of trauma and neglect is the loss of the ability to regulate the intensity of feelings and impulses. The inability to modulate emotions might underlie a range of behaviors such as aggression against others or self-destructive behavior and might interfere with flexible response strategies during the child’s development. Emotional dysregulation might also extend to other social contexts, including peers and difficulties in establishing and maintaining positive peer relationships.